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Diamond is the hardest material on earth.
Its hardness and fine luster makes it the most sought after out of all gemstones.

The finest diamond is pure and colorless, but there are lots of color variations depending on the pollutant species.
The build out of the carbon atoms makes the usually well-formed with a convex (upward) surface.

Today is the most important producer in Australia but other major producers are also available such as: Russia, Ghana, Sierra Leone , Namibia , Botswana, Zaire and the United States.

It divides Diamonds by:
Clarity, Cut, weight and color
The weight given in carats and is written as ct.

Crystal structure: Cubic
Composition: Carbon
Hardness: 10
Density: 3.52
Refractive index: 2.42
Birefringence: None
Gloss: Diamond

FL = flawless = free of inclusions and surface defects
IF = internally flawless = free of inclusions
VVS (1-2) = very very small inclusions = very very small inclusions
VS ( 1-2) * very small inclusions = very small inclusions
SI (1-2) * small inclusions = small inclusions
P1 = piqué1 = obvious inclusions that are very difficult to see with the naked eye.
P2 = piqué 2 = easily seen with the naked eye.
P3 = piqué 3 = very obvious inclusions that greatly impairs the stone's appearance.

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